Do not fall prey to the bystander effect.

Due to the principle of social proof, most people will not take action in an emergency as they do not see anyone else taking action. Identifying specific people to complete specific tasks will erase their uncertainty and spur them to act. As more people begin reacting to the emergency, even more will step in to help.


  1. When an emergency is happening, single out specific people to carry out specific tasks.
    For example, if someone is having a heart attack on the street, identify one specific person to call an ambulance. Say, “You in the blue shirt! Call an ambulance right now!”


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